Binary Code

Trade Binary Options Today to Earn Big Profits Rapidly

Binary options are turning out to be a popular financial instrument that you can use to make substantial profits inside one hour. In recent times, the news of how people are making quick profits trading these options is circulating thick and fast. The major reasons behind the popularity of such options, also known as digital options, are the ease of trading and the opportunity to earn up to 80 percent profit in an hour.

In case you are not familiar with binary options, the name itself must explain you everything. Similar to the binary code that involves only two digits – 0 and 1, binary trading presents two options only. The first one is the binary call option which forecasts that the price of the asset involved will climb up. The other one is the binary put option that forecasts the other way around, i.e. the price of the asset will climb down.

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With only call and put option to consider, the trading gets a lot easier since a trader no longer needs to forecast which asset is potential enough to offer him the most excellent profit or how much it will rise or fall. The sole thing the trader has to forecast is the movement of the market price of the underlying asset. Simply put, he needs to predict whether the market price of a particular currency, commodity, stock, or index will ascend or descend during the time interval between the instant he bought the option and its expiration time. In the majority of assets, traders can select from hourly expiry time and daily expiry time.

One more thing that contributes to the immense popularity of digital options is the massive payout. At the time of trading these options, the profit you make upon a correct forecast is 80 percent, which is very high in comparison to other sorts of investment. Hence, the vital question is how you can boost the probability of a successful prediction regarding the rise or fall of the asset market price.

A significant rule in trading binary options is picking out the asset for your investment. You have to be fully acquainted with the asset, so you can successfully forecast the direction of its price. Before buying an option, it is advisable to collect some valuable information about the asset. Acquiring knowledge of the specific field or company background will help you predict what might occur in the following trading hour or day.

Furthermore, interpreting previous charts might assist you in trading digital options, but you need to be cautious while doing that. The reason is things shift very rapidly in the financial markets. A stock that has witnessed a drop by 5 percent in one day might rise again if there is a favorable cause for that and at times even with no specific cause.

Michael lewis is an experienced trader of stocks, currencies, commodities and many more. In the wake of rising popularity of binary options, he offers all kinds of updated market news, strategies and tips related to binary or digital options through his website. Visit the site to open a trading account.
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Learn options trading – it may bring you an instant profits

If you thinking about making money from home and earning money online, without having to leave your home, being stuck in traffic and being around unpleasant bosses, then I a guess this article will give you few reasons to learn options trading.

Binary options (sometimes referred as digital options) are financial instruments that empower you to trade in a variety of financial instruments as specific shares, foreign currency pairs, Stock markets indices and commodities.

Like in the binary code where the code is build from 2 digits (0, 1) in binary options the trader have to choose from 2 options strategies:

Binary call option: is a trade of option where the investor predicts that the price of an underlying asset will rise between the time of the option trade and its expiry date.

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Binary put option: this refers the opposite; a trade of option where the investor predicts that the price of an underlying asset will decline between the time of the option trade and its expiry date.

It is important to emphasize that the binary option outcome is based on the price direction prediction, it doesn’t matter if the price have changes by 0.01% or by 10%, the outcome is a result of whether the trader managed to predict the correct price direction or the wrong one. In case the price direction has predicted correctly it will we be true to say that the option has expired in the money, on the other hand if the binary options trader has predicted wrongly, it will be true to say that the option has expired out of the money. There is also a possibility that the price of the option will not changed during the time elapsed between strike time and expiration time, in this case we’ll call it an option that expired at the money.

Therefore, the question is what a binary option that expired in the money will give you: binary option that expired in the money will provide it’s holder a 75% profit,  

This amount of potential profit is incredibly high if you compare it to what you are getting on Forex, or other forms of investment, on the other hand if the trader bought an option that predicting the wrong direction of the asset, he will lose 90% of his investment. Despite the potential lose there are many reasons for you to learn options trading and start trading in binary options:

In binary options, you get the profits in short amount of time, sometimes less than 1 hour.
Binary options trading platforms are usually very simple and easy, it easy to start trading, it’s easy to follow your options, you don’t need to be broker or to understand much in stocks trading in order to trade binary options
You can improve your chances to predict the correct asset price direction by reading financial news, prices charts and information about the asset you plan to invest in. 
Trading binary options let you invest on a variety of assets, so even if you predicted the wrong price direction of an asset, there is a chance that you will manage to predict the correct direction on different asset and still gain profits.
Visit GlobalOption.com to learn more about trading binary options.
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Rotary encoder – blue diode laser K41S03F-0.02W-S – Red Laser Diode K68S09F-0.80W

Absolute rotary encoder

Absolute rotary encoder

Construction

Absolute digital type produces a unique digital code for each distinct angle of the shaft. They come in two basic types: optical and mechanical.

Mechanical absolute encoders

A metal disc containing a set of concentric rings of openings is fixed to an insulating disc, which is rigidly fixed to the shaft. A row of sliding contacts is fixed to a stationary object so that each contact wipes against the metal disc at a different distance from the shaft. As the disc rotates with the shaft, some of the contacts touch metal, while others fall in the gaps where the metal has been cut out. The metal sheet is connected to a source of electric current, and each contact is connected to a separate electrical sensor. The metal pattern is designed so that each possible position of the axle creates a unique binary code in which some of the contacts are connected to the current source (i.e. switched on) and others are not (i.e. switched off).

Optical absolute encoders

The optical encoder’s disc is made of glass or plastic with transparent and opaque areas. A light source and photo detector array reads the optical pattern that results from the disc’s position at any one time.

This code can be read by a controlling device, such as a microprocessor, to determine the angle of the shaft.

The absolute analog type produces a unique dual analog code that can be translated into an absolute angle of the shaft (by using a special algorithm).

Standard binary encoding

Rotary encoder for angle-measuring devices marked in 3-bit binary. The inner ring corresponds to Contact 1 in the table. Black sectors are “on”. Zero degrees is on the right-hand side, with angle increasing counterclockwise.

An example of a binary code, in an extremely simplified encoder with only three contacts, is shown below.

Standard Binary Encoding

Sector

Contact 1

Contact 2

Contact 3

Angle

1

off

off

off

0 to 45

2

off

off

on

45 to 90

3

off

on

off

90 to 135

4

off

on

on

135 to 180

5

on

off

off

180 to 225

6

on

off

on

225 to 270

7

on

on

off

270 to 315

8

on

on

on

315 to 360

In general, where there are n contacts, the number of distinct positions of the shaft is 2n. In this example, n is 3, so there are 2 or 8 positions.

In the above example, the contacts produce a standard binary count as the disc rotates. However, this has the drawback that if the disc stops between two adjacent sectors, or the contacts are not perfectly aligned, it can be impossible to determine the angle of the shaft. To illustrate this problem, consider what happens when the shaft angle changes from 179.9 to 180.1 (from sector 4 to sector 5). At some instant, according to the above table, the contact pattern changes from off-on-on to on-off-off. However, this is not what happens in reality. In a practical device, the contacts are never perfectly aligned, so each switches at a different moment. If contact 1 switches first, followed by contact 3 and then contact 2, for example, the actual sequence of codes is:

off-on-on (starting position)

on-on-on (first, contact 1 switches on)

on-on-off (next, contact 3 switches off)

on-off-off (finally, contact 2 switches off)

Now look at the sectors corresponding to these codes in the table. In order, they are 4, 8, 7 and then 5. So, from the sequence of codes produced, the shaft appears to have jumped from sector 4 to sector 8, then gone backwards to sector 7, then backwards again to sector 5, which is where we expected to find it. In many situations, this behaviour is undesirable and could cause the system to fail. For example, if the encoder were used in a robot arm, the controller would think that the arm was in the wrong position, and try to correct the error by turning it through 180, perhaps causing damage to the arm.

Gray encoding

Rotary encoder for angle-measuring devices marked in 3-bit binary-reflected Gray code (BRGC). The inner ring corresponds to Contact 1 in the table. Black sectors are “on”. Zero degrees is on the right-hand side, with angle increasing anticlockwise.

To avoid the above problem, Gray encoding is used. This is a system of binary counting in which adjacent codes differ in only one position. For the three-contact example given above, the Gray-coded version would be as follows.

Gray Coding

Sector

Contact 1

Contact 2

Contact 3

Angle

1

off

off

off

0 to 45

2

off

off

on

45 to 90

3

off

on

on

90 to 135

4

off

on

off

135 to 180

5

on

on

off

180 to 225

6

on

on

on

225 to 270

7

on

off

on

270 to 315

8

on

off

off

315 to 360

In this example, the transition from sector 4 to sector 5, like all other transitions, involves only one of the contacts changing its state from on to off or vice versa. This means that the sequence of incorrect codes shown in the previous illustration cannot happen.

Single-track absolute rotary encoder

If the designer moves a contact to a different angular position (but at the same distance from the center shaft), then the corresponding “ring pattern” needs to be rotated the same angle to give the same output. If the most significant bit (the inner ring in Figure 1) is rotated enough, it exactly matches the next ring out. Since both rings are then identical, the inner ring can be omitted, and the sensor for that ring moved to the remaining, identical ring (but offset at that angle from the other sensor on that ring). Those two sensors on a single ring make a quadrature encoder.

For many years, Torsten Sillke and other mathematicians believed that it was impossible to encode position on a single track so that consecutive positions differed at only a single sensor, except for the two-sensor, one-track quadrature encoder. However, in 1994 N. B. Spedding registered a patent (NZ Patent 264738) showing it was possible with several examples. See Gray code for details.

Encoder output formats

In commercial absolute encoders there are several formats for transmission of absolute encoder data, including parallel binary, SSI, “BiSS”, ISI, Profibus, CAN DeviceNet, CANopen, Endat and Hiperface, depending on the manufacturer of the device

Incremental rotary encoder

An incremental rotary encoder, also known as a quadrature encoder or a relative rotary encoder, has two outputs called quadrature outputs. They can be either mechanical or optical. In the optical type there are two gray coded tracks, while the mechanical type has two contacts that are actuated by cams on the rotating shaft. The mechanical type requires debouncing and is typically used as digital potentiometers on equipment including consumer devices. Most modern home and car stereos use mechanical rotary encoders for volume. Due to the fact the mechanical switches require debouncing, the mechanical type are limited in the rotational speeds they can handle. The incremental rotary encoder is the most widely used of all rotary encoders due to its low cost: only two sensors are required.

The fact that incremental encoders use only two sensors does not compromise their accuracy. One can find in the market incremental encoders with up to 10,000 counts per revolution, or more.

There can be an optional third output: reference, which happens once every turn. This is used when there is the need of an absolute reference, such as positioning systems.

The optical type is used when higher RPMs are encountered or a higher degree of precision is required.

Incremental encoders are used to track motion and can be used to determine position and velocity. This can be either linear or rotary motion. Because the direction can be determined, very accurate measurements can be made.

They employ two outputs called A & B which are called quadrature outputs as they are 90 degrees out of phase.

The state diagram:

Gray coding for

clockwise rotation

Phase

A

B

1

0

0

2

0

1

3

1

1

4

1

0

Gray coding for

counter-clockwise rotation

Phase

A

B

1

1

0

2

1

1

3

0

1

4

0

0

Two square waves in quadrature (clockwise rotation).

The two output wave forms are 90 degrees out of phase, which is all that the quadrature term means. These signals are decoded to produce a count up pulse or a count down pulse. For decoding in software, the A & B outputs are read by software, either via an interrupt on any edge or polling, and the above table is used to decode the direction. For example if the last value was 00 and the current value is 01, the device has moved one half step in the clockwise direction. The mechanical types would be debounced first by requiring that the same (valid) value be read a certain number of times before recognizing a state change.

If the encoder is turning too fast, an invalid transition may occur, such as 00->11. There is no way to know which way the encoder turned; if it was 00->01->11, or 00->10->11.

If the encoder is turning even faster, a backward count may occur. Example: consider the 00->01->11->10 transition (3 steps forward). If the encoder is turning too fast, the system might read only the 00 and then the 10, which yields a 00->10 transition (1 step backward).

This same principle is used in ball mice to track whether the mouse is moving to the right/left or forward/backward.

Rotary sensors with a single output are not encoders and cannot sense direction, but can sense RPM. They are thus called tachometer sensors.

Incremental versus absolute encoder terminology

There seem to be some grey areas as to what constitutes an incremental encoder as opposed to an absolute encoder.

Traditional absolute encoders

Traditional absolute encoders have multiple code rings with various binary weightings which provide a data word representing the absolute position of the encoder within one revolution. This type of encoder is often referred to as a parallel absolute encoder. The distinguishing feature of the absolute encoder is that it reports the absolute position of the encoder to the electronics immediately upon power-up with no need for indexing.

Traditional incremental encoders

A traditional incremental encoder works differently by providing an A and a B pulse output which provide no usable count information in their own right. Rather, the counting is done in the external electronics. The point where the counting begins depends on the counter in the external electronics and not on the position of the encoder. To provide useful position information, the encoder position must be referenced to the device to which it is attached, generally using an index pulse. The distinguishing feature of the incremental encoder is that it reports an incremental change in position of the encoder to the counting electronics.

Battery backed incremental encoders

Some encoder manufacturers, such as Fanuc, have taken a different approach to this terminology. These manufacturers use absolute as their terminology for incremental encoders with a battery backed up memory to store count information and provide an absolute count immediately upon power up.

Sine wave encoder

A variation on the Incremental encoder is the Sinewave Encoder. Instead of producing two quadrature square waves, the outputs are quadrature sine waves (a Sine and a Cosine). By performing the arctangent function, arbitrary levels of resolution can be achieved.

Use in industry

Encoders used on servomotors

Rotary encoders are often used to track the position of the motor shaft on permanent magnet brushless motors, which are commonly used on CNC machines, robots, and other industrial equipment. In these applications, the feedback device (encoder) plays a vital role in ensuring that the equipment operates properly. The encoder synchronizes the relative rotor magnet and stator winding positions to the current provided by the drive. Maximum torque results if the current is applied to the windings when the rotor magnets are in a particular position range relative to the stator windings. The motor will perform poorly or not at all if this timing is not adjusted correctly. Improper encoder alignment on the motor can actually cause it to run backwards sometimes resulting in a hazardous run away condition. Correct alignment is absolutely essential to proper operation of these motors.

Encoder technologies

Hall-effect quadrature encoder, sensing gear teeth on the driveshaft of a robot vehicle.

Encoders may be implemented using a variety of technologies:

Conductive tracks. A series of copper pads etched onto a PCB is used to encode the information. Contact brushes sense the conductive areas. This form of encoder is now rarely seen.

Optical. This uses a light shining onto a photodiode through slits in a metal or glass disc. Reflective versions also exist. This is one of the most common technologies.

Magnetic. Strips of magnetised material are placed on the rotating disc and are sensed by a Hall-effect sensor or magnetoresistive sensor. Hall effect sensors are also used to sense gear teeth directly, without the need for a separate encoder disc.

See also

Analogue devices that perform a similar function include the synchro, the resolver, the rotary variable differential transformer (RVDT) and the rotary potentiometer.

A Linear encoder is similar to a rotary encoder, but measures position in a straight line, rather than rotation. Linear encoders often use incremental encoding and are used in many machine tools.

External links

“Choosing a code wheel: A detailed look at how encoders work” article by Steve Trahey 2008-03-25 describes “rotary encoders”.

“Encoders provide a sense of place” article by Jack Ganssle 2005-07-19 describes “nonlinear encoders”.

“Robot Encoders”.

Introductory Tutorial on PWM and Quadrature Encoding

“Encoders That are on the Market Today “.

“Inductive Encoders that are on the market “.

ProtoTalk.net – Understanding Quadrature Encoding – Covers details of rotary and quadrature encoding with a focus on robotic applications

References

^ Canon video camera lens, used for zoom and aperture control

^ a b c TI-5000EX Serial/Incremental Encoder Test System User Manual, Mitchell Electronics, Inc.

^ PM Brushless Servo Motor Feedback Commutation Series Part 1, Mitchell Electronics, Inc.

Categories: Electro mechanical engineering | SensorsHidden categories: Articles needing cleanup from January 2008 | All pages needing cleanup

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